Eye medication may harm growing infants: Study

Nursing and pregnant women beware! Your eye disease medication could have an adverse effect on infants.

Researchers have found that a few drugs used to treat retinal diseases may mix with breast milk, further causing a safety issue for growing infants.
The research published in the journal, ‘Ophthalmology’ is a first-of-its-kind study led by St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto.

Ranibizumab and aflibercept are medications used to treat several retinal diseases. They contain an agent called anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), which blocks the eye’s production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

VEGF is a protein that stimulates the development of blood vessels but is associated with retinal diseases in high quantities.

VEGF is present in breast milk and plays an important role in the development of an infant’s digestive system. As a result, anti-VEGF drugs in a nursing mother raise concerns about possible adverse events in a developing infant if the drugs were to pass into breast milk and suppress VEGF.

“As retina specialists, we often tell our pregnant or nursing patients that there’s a risk of a small amount of these drugs making its way into the breast milk, but we can’t be sure,” said Dr Rajeev Muni, co-lead author, a vitreoretinal surgeon at St. Michael’s and a project investigator at the hospital’s Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute.

“We don’t want these patients to lose their vision so we make a decision, despite limited information,” added Dr Muni.

Hoping to change this, Dr Muni and Dr Verena Juncal, co-lead author and a retinal fellow at St. Michael’s, measured the concentrations of retinal medications in the breast milk of three lactating patients following injection of anti-VEGF therapy.

The team found that the drugs were excreted into the breast milk within the first couple days following injection, with a corresponding reduction in VEGF levels.

They also found that the amount of medication detected in the patient who continued to breastfeed was significantly lower than the other two patients, suggesting that the medication was constantly excreted and ingested by the infant.

“These results definitively show us that the drug reaches the breast milk,” said Dr Juncal. “We realise that some readers may question the small sample size, but if the drug reaches the breast milk in three patients, it’ll reach in 30 patients because it’s the same biological process.”

As the first study to evaluate the presence of Health Canada approved anti-VEGF therapy in human breast milk, these results provide a resource for ophthalmologists and retina specialists counselling pregnant and nursing patients.

“I’m comforted knowing that other pregnant or nursing mothers with retinal diseases will have the information needed to make an educated decision about whether to consider nursing while receiving these medications,” said Lisa, one of the three study participants, who didn’t want to reveal her surname.


‘Positive surroundings in childhood has long-term health benefits’

While having a positive surrounding is considered necessary for the overall development of a child, it is equally important to determine the long-term health of kids who have experienced adversity early in life.

A new study has found that a good childhood including friendly neighbours, teachers can help save the long-term health of kids.
“These findings show that the positive experiences in childhood lead to better adult physical and mental health, no matter what they face,” said study author Ali Crandall, assistant professor of public health at Brigham Young University.

Specifically, the study found that even when an individual had four or more adverse childhood experiences (called ACEs), having a high number of advantageous childhood experiences (Counter-ACEs) lessened the negative effect of ACEs on adult health.

Participants reported the number of ACEs and Counter-ACEs they experienced in childhood. ACEs include abuse, abandonment, having a family member in jail, alcoholism, mental illness, addiction, divorce or death.

The full list of Counter-ACEs includes having good friends and neighbours, beliefs that provide comfort, liking school, teachers who care, having a caregiver whom you feel safe with, opportunities to have fun, feeling comfortable with yourself and a predictable home routine like regular meals and bedtimes.

According to the study findings, published in the journal Child Abuse & Neglect, nearly 75 per cent of participants had at least one adverse childhood experience, while the average amount of ACEs was 2.67 per person.

The average positive experience score was 8.15, with 39 per cent of people having experienced all 10 of those Counter-ACEs.

Participants also reported their current health through a variety of physical measures — like BMI, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical exercise, sleep difficulties and if they smoked daily — as well as their cognitive and mental health through executive functioning abilities, perceived stress, depression, internal locus of control, gratitude, forgiveness of self and challenging situations and familial closeness.

Interestingly, researchers also found that the absence of Counter-ACEs led to poor adult health regardless of the number of ACEs.

“As bad as ACEs may be, the absence of these positive childhood experiences and relationships may actually be more detrimental to lifelong health so we need more focus on increasing the positive,” Crandall said.
Crandall believes that increasing counter-ACES in the home is the easiest place to start and is working to educate the community about how to do this in conjunction with United Way.


How to make sure your child car seat is fitted correctly

Research suggests that more than 70% of all child car seats are incorrectly fitted, or the wrong size. Here’s everything you need to know about making sure your child car seat is fitted correctly.

A twisted belt, resting the child seat against the backseat’s head rest instead of the seat back, or using the wrong seat for your child’s age or size, and more besides are all examples of a child seat not being fitted correctly. Even moving a child out of a child seat too soon is dangerous and risks your child’s life in the event of a collision.

Before we go too deep, we need to point out that this is general advice only and that all child seats are different – you should always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for your child seat. And, if in doubt, always check with a child seat fitting expert.

Age should only ever be used as a guide when moving your child from one seat type to another and that’s because not all children are the same size/height at the same age. So, you should always go off the height markers on your child seat before moving your child from one seat type to another.

This means that if your child is, say, 10-years-old but their shoulders are still safely below the maximum height marker on the child seat then your child needs to remain in their child seat. Moving them out too early is risking their life in the event of a collision.

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अगर आप भी मां बनने वाली है तो न खाएं ये सब..!!

मां बनना सभी महिलाओं के लिए दुनिया की सबसे बड़ी खुशी में से एक है। ऐसे में यह भी जरूरी है कि आप अपने खाने-पीने का खास ख्याल रखें। गर्भावस्था के दौरान आपकी बेली में एस्ट्रोजेन हार्मोन का बढ़ा हुआ स्तर आपके बच्चे को ऑटिस्टिक यानी की अपने ही विचारों में खोया हुआ बना सकता है।

मां बनना सभी महिलाओं के लिए दुनिया की सबसे बड़ी खुशी में से एक है। ऐसे में यह भी जरूरी है कि आप अपने खाने-पीने का खास ख्याल रखें। गर्भावस्था के दौरान आपकी बेली में एस्ट्रोजेन हार्मोन का बढ़ा हुआ स्तर आपके  बच्चे को ऑटिस्टिक यानी की अपने ही विचारों में खोया हुआ बना सकता है।

एस्ट्रोजेन हार्मोन आपकी बॉडी में प्राकृतिक रूप से उत्पादित होते हैं और यह आपकी प्रजनन प्रणाली को प्रबंधित करते हैं। एस्ट्रोजेन आपकी हड्डियों को सुरक्षित भी रखने का काम करते हैं और चोट के बाद त्वचा के उभरने में मदद करते हैं।

अगर आपके शरीर में एस्ट्रोजेन का जरूरी स्तर कम हो जाता है तो आपको गर्मी, योनि का सूखापन, ठंड लगना, सोने में कठिनाई और जरूरत से ज्यादा पसीना आएगा। हालांकि जब इसका स्तर ज्यादा हो जाएगा तो आपको ब्लोटिंग, यौन इच्छा में कमी, मूड में बदलाव, स्तन में सूज और सिर दर्द जैसी समस्याओं से गुजरा होगा। इसका बढ़ा हुआ स्तर संभावित रूप से खून के थक्के, कैंसर, जन्मजात दिक्कतें और स्तन ऊतकों में दिक्कत होना शुरू हो जाएगा।

अगर आप अपेक्षा कर रही हैं और आपके गर्भ में एस्ट्रोजेन का स्तर अधिक है तो आपको कुछ विशेष खाद्य पदार्थों से दूरी बनानी चाहिए ताकि बच्चे को किसी प्रकार की दिक्कत का सामना न करना पड़े।

अलसी के बीज (Flaxseeds)

हालांकि अलसी के बीज को अच्छा माना जाता है क्योंकि ये आपकी बॉडी में कोलेस्ट्रोल के स्तर को कम रखने में मदद करता है और ये एस्ट्रोजेन से भरे होते हैं।

सोया (Soya)

आइसोफ्लेवोन्स से भरपूर होने के कारण सोया उत्पाद महिलाओं में एस्ट्रोजेन के स्तर को बढ़ाते हैं।

स्ट्रॉबेरी (Strawberries)

स्ट्रॉबेरी को फाइटोएस्ट्रोजेन से युक्त माना जाता है, जिनका अधिक सेवन गर्भवती महिलाओं के लिए खतरनाक हो सकता है।

नट्स (Nuts)

ये फूड महिलाओं के लिए सबसे उपयुक्त होते हैं और डॉक्टर महिलाओं को ये खाने की सलाह देते हैं। लेकिन गर्भावस्था के दौरान नट्स खाने से आपका एस्ट्रोजेन स्तर बहुत तेजी से बढ़ता है।

रेड वाइन (Red wine)

रेड वाइन फाइटोएस्ट्रोजेन से भरपूर होती है इसलिए गर्भवती महिलाओं को रेड वाइन से दूर रहना चाहिए।

Here’s how a new father views his relationship with his partner

According to recent findings , a father tends to feel closer to his partner , both as a co-parent and as a romantic partner, when he believes that she trusts him when it comes to taking care of their child.

A lot changes between a couple after they embrace parent hood. According to a recent study, confidence is the key to maintaining a loving relationship .

According to recent findings , a father tends to feel closer to his partner , both as a co-parent and as a romantic partner, when he believes that she trusts him when it comes to taking care of their child.

“Father s are more involved than they have ever been in parenting, but moms are still seen in our society as the expert caregivers. So, how mothers react to their partner s’ parenting matters a lot. It affects how new dads feel about their whole family situation, including his relationship  with his wife or partner ,” said Anna Olsavsky, lead author of the study and a doctoral student in human sciences at The Ohio State University.

According to researchers, this study, published in the journal Family Process, is one of a few to focus on the transition to parenthood from the perspective of fathers.

The researchers used data from the New Parents Project, a long-term study co-led by Schoppe-Sullivan that is investigating how dual-earner couples adjust to becoming parents for the first time. In all, 182 couples, most of whom were married, participated in this study.

The parents were assessed four times: when the mother  was in her third trimester of pregnancy and when the baby was 3, 6 and 9 months old.

When the baby was three months old, fathers answered questions about what researchers call “maternal gatekeeping,” or how much the mother  inhibits or welcomes father’s involvement in childcare.

Father s reported how much they felt their partner  “opened” or “closed” the gate on them when it came to interacting with the baby.

For example, each dad reported on gate-closing behaviors such as how often his partner  took over baby-related tasks because the mom thought he wasn’t doing them properly or how often she gave him irritated looks about his parenting.

Examples of gate opening include encouraging the father to help bathe the baby, letting him know that she (mother) appreciates his contributions to parenting.

When the baby was six months old, the fathers were asked about their co-parenting closeness with their partner. For example, they rated how much they felt they were “growing and maturing together through experiences as parents.”

Finally, when the baby was nine months old, the fathers rated how good they felt about their romantic relationship with their partner.

Results showed that whether the mother  “opened” or “closed” the gate on the father had a significant impact on how he felt about their relationship  as a couple.

“If mothers are critical and less supportive of their partners’ parenting, it could have ramifications for the whole family dynamic,” Schoppe-Sullivan said.

But the flip side was also true: Gate opening had a positive effect on how the new dad viewed the couple’s relationship.

“There has been some work suggesting that gate opening may be viewed by fathers negatively as demands for them to be more involved in child-rearing, but that’s not what we found,” Olsavsky said.

According to the findings , the gate opening was perceived positively by fathers. They felt it improved their relationship as a couple.

The researchers emphasised that it is important for both new parent s to support each other. But, because of societal norms, fathers may need extra support.

There is this underlying assumption that mothers are experts when it comes to parenting. And they have more sources of support in society when it comes to how to be a good parent.

On the other hand, researchers pointed out that fathers don’t generally get that support from society. The only support they often get as parents are from their partner. That is why it is so important.



एक गर्भवती स्त्री ने अपने पति से कहा, “आप क्या आशा करते हैं लडका होगा या लडकी”

पति-“अगर हमारा लड़का होता है, तो मैं उसे गणित पढाऊगा, हम खेलने जाएंगे, मैं उसे मछली पकडना सिखाऊगा।”

पत्नी – “अगर लड़की हुई तो…?” 
पति- “अगर हमारी लड़की होगी तो, मुझे उसे कुछ सिखाने की जरूरत ही नही होगी”

“क्योंकि, उन सभी में से एक होगी जो सब कुछ मुझे दोबारा सिखाएगी, कैसे पहनना, कैसे खाना, क्या कहना या नही कहना।”

“एक तरह से वो, मेरी दूसरी मां होगी। वो मुझे अपना हीरो समझेगी, चाहे मैं उसके लिए कुछ खास करू या ना करू।”

“जब भी मै उसे किसी चीज़ के लिए मना करूंगा तो मुझे समझेगी। वो हमेशा अपने पति की मुझ से तुलना करेगी।”

“यह मायने नहीं रखता कि वह कितने भी साल की हो पर वो हमेशा चाहेगी की मै उसे अपनी baby doll की तरह प्यार करूं।”

“वो मेरे लिए संसार से लडेगी, जब कोई मुझे दुःख देगा वो उसे कभी माफ नहीं करेगी।”

पत्नी – “कहने का मतलब है कि, आपकी बेटी जो सब करेगी वो आपका बेटा नहीं कर पाएगा।”

पति- “नहीं, नहीं क्या पता मेरा बेटा भी ऐसा ही करेगा, पर वो सिखेगा।”

“परंतु बेटी, इन गुणों के साथ पैदा होगी। किसी बेटी का पिता होना हर व्यक्ति के लिए गर्व की बात है।”

पत्नी – “पर वो हमेशा हमारे साथ नही रहेगी…?”

पति- “हां, पर हम हमेशा उसके दिल में रहेंगे।”

“इससे कोई फर्क नही पडेगा चाहे वो कही भी जाए, बेटियाँ परी होती हैं”

“जो सदा बिना शर्त के प्यार और देखभाल के लिए जन्म लेती है।”

“बेटीयां सब के मुकद्दर में, कहाँ होती हैं जो घर भगवान को हो पसंद वहां पैदा होती हैं बेटियाँ .

Parents barriers to teen independence: Study

According to the study, nearly all parents (97 per cent) in a new national poll say they are helping their teen become more independent by using strategies like allowing them to make more choices (86 per cent), pushing them to handle things themselves (74 per cent) and no longer doing things for them (65 per cent).

Parents can act as barriers to teen independence by not giving them enough space to take up important responsibility, recent findings suggest.

According to the study, nearly all parents (97 per cent) in a new national poll say they are helping their teen become more independent by using strategies like allowing them to make more choices (86 per cent), pushing them to handle things themselves (74 per cent) and no longer doing things for them (65 per cent).

Despite this, one-quarter of parents surveyed say they are the main barrier to their teen’s independence by not taking the time or effort to give their teen more responsibility, according to the research.

As children become teenagers, the role of parents shifts to helping them gain the knowledge and experience they will need for being independent adults,” said Sarah Clark, lead author of the study.

The report is based on responses from a nationally-representative sample of 877 parents of at least one child who is 14-18 years old. The study was conducted at the University of Michigan.

Sixty per cent of parents polled say their teen’s characteristics are barriers to becoming more independent, such as not being mature enough (24 per cent), not having time (22 per cent) or not knowing enough (14 per cent) to take on more responsibility.

In contrast, one-quarter of parents admit their own role in impeding their teen’s independence, saying it’s quicker and less hassle to do things themselves (19 per cent) or they don’t think about how to give teens more responsibility (7 per cent).

Parents gave the lowest rating of teen independence for tasks related to health care. When it comes to their teen’s health, parents may feel responsible for ensuring that appropriate care is received and medical advice is followed, Clark says.

Parents are nearly universal in the belief that it is important for teens to make mistakes, but they also feel they should prevent teens from mistakes that are too serious.

“It is clear that parents recognize tension in helping teens move toward independence, and they agree that valuable learning experiences often result from a poor decision,” researchers said.

Researchers recommend parents to position themselves as a back-up resource, to be consulted only if the teen cannot handle the matter independently. Parents should also establish specific milestones and create opportunities to mentor their teens in gaining experience and confidence while reaching those goals.